Cockenzie: From the Carboniferous to Johnnie Cope

The excursion will focus on the geodiversity of the Cockenzie Harbour area, including Lower Carboniferous sedimentary rocks. The western harbour wall takes advantage of a massive E-W trending dyke, part of the Permo-Carboniferous quartz-dolerite dyke swarm. In addition, we will use a combination of historic maps and documentary sources to examine the importance of the local hydrological and hydrogeological systems on human activity, including influencing the outcome of the Battle of Prestonpans in 1745.

Read the Code of Conduct and Safety Guidelines and book your place …

Excursion title:

Cockenzie: From the Carboniferous to Johnnie Cope

Date & time:

21/8/2019 1900

Finish time:

2100

Leaders:

Alistair J. McGowan, BioGeoD

Excursion aims and description:

The excursion will take a wider overview of geodiversity in the small area around Cockenzie Harbour.

On the beach of the harbour itself, we will be able to inspect some of the Lower Carboniferous sedimentary rocks of the Carboniferous Upper Limestone Formation. The western harbour wall, and some smaller sites to the east, take advantage of the massive E-W trending Port-Seton Spittal Dyke. This is an excellent example of a member of the Permo-Carboniferous quartz-microgabbro (dolerite) dyke swarm associated with extensional tectonics in the Midland Valley in the Late Palaeozoic.

In the other part of the excursion, we will use a combination of historic maps and documentary sources to examine the importance of the local hydrological and hydrogeological systems on human activity. The wetlands influenced the outcome of the Battle of Prestonpans in 1745. More recently the closure of the deep coalmines meant that pumping out of water ceased. This allowed the mine galleries to re-flood as the water-table rose again with impacts, including acid mine drainage and the distortion of the main East Coast rail line.

Transport:

It is possible to take the train to Prestonpans and walk or cycle to and from the station, which is about 2 km away.

Car parking is free at a number of locations around the area on West Harbour Road.EH32 0HX

The Lothian Buses 26 service to Seton Sands stops close to West Harbour Road

Meeting point:

Eastern side of Cockenzie Harbour

First locality:

Cockenzie Harbour.

Excursion route:

www.plotaroute.com/route/763982

Terrain, walking distance, height gain:

Walk is entirely on paved surfaces. Distance: 1.9 km. Total ascent 60 m.

Specific or Medium- / High-Risk Hazards:

No need for any high-risk road crossings. Tide will be just falling but the rocks in the raised beach section are never covered.

Control measures required to mitigate against any Hazards referred to above:

N/A

Hard hats or Hi-viz clothing needed:

No

May dogs be brought on the excursion?

Yes

Toilet information:

Public toilets are available at Aldi Store at edge of Prestonpans or Port Seton but not ideal.

Geological map sheet:

Scotland 33W Haddington

OS map sheet:

Landranger 66

References:

General information about Cockenzie

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cockenzie_and_Port_Seton

Overview of geology

Landscape Fashion by Geology:East Lothian, SNH 1997- Free PDF https://www.nature.scot/landscape-fashioned-geology-east-lothian-and-borders

East Lothian Geodiversity Audit: Introduction http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/OR/14/063_East_Lothian%E2%80%99s_geoheritage

Site description by BGS as part of East Lothian Geodiversity audit http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/OR/14/063_Site_assessment_-_ELC_16:_Cockenzie_and_Port_Seton

Groundwater issues

Crouching enemy, hidden ally: the decisive role of groundwater discharge features in two major British battles, Flodden 1513 and Prestonpans 1745 Younger, Paul L. Geological Society, London, Special Publications(2012),362(1):19 http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP362.2

Younger, P. L. (2016) A simple, low-cost approach to predicting the hydrogeological consequences of coalfield closure as a basis for best practice in long-term management. International Journal of Coal Geology, 164, pp. 25-34. (doi:10.1016/j.coal.2016.06.002) http://eprints.gla.ac.uk/120112/7/120112.pdf

Binny Craig

Ben Peach described Binny Craig in the 1910 Edinburgh memoir as ‘perhaps the most striking example (of crag and tail) in the whole of the district’ and the summit is an ideal place to view other features of ice sculpting in the central part of the Midland Valley. The sill that forms the craig, and a dyke extending to the east, have for long been regarded as petrographical curiosities. Their field relationships are comparable to late-Carboniferous dykes and sills of quartz-dolerite in the Bathgate Hills and the upper part of the sill is quartz-dolerite, but the main outcrops are of a distinctive pyroxene-feldspar-phyric basalt, albeit with definite tholeiitic characteristics. There is evidence that oil-shales in the country-rock succession have been ‘distilled’ by heat from the intrusions, which have been impregnated by bituminous material.

Excursion title:

Binny Craig

Date & time:

17 July 2019, 19.00

Finish time:

21.30

Leader:

David Stephenson, formerly BGS Edinburgh

Transport:

Private cars

Meeting point:

Oatridge College [NT 047 737] – precise parking location to be advised

First locality:

Oatridge College [NT 047 737] – precise parking location to be advised

Excursion route:

South, west and north to summit of Binny Craig, with possible return north and east to complete a circular route

Terrain, walking distance, height gain:

Tracks and rough, rocky slopes

2 km

about 150 m height gain, including ups and downs on the ridge

Specific or Medium- / High-Risk Hazards:

Steep rocky slopes

Inclement weather

Control measures required to mitigate against any Hazards referred to above:

Be careful

Appropriate clothing and footwear essential

Hard hats or Hi-viz clothing needed?

No

May dogs be brought on the excursion?

I don’t see why not but might need to be on lead in places

Toilet information:

Assume none

Geological map sheet:

32W Livingston

OS map sheet:

65 Falkirk and West Lothian

References:

Lunn, J.W. (1928) The intrusion of Binny Craig. Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Society, Vol.12, pp 74-79.

Available online to members via the Lyell Collection web site.

Joppa Shore

Booking essential. Please read and take note of the Code of Conduct & Safety Guidelines, in particular the procedures in place to minimise the transmission of Coronavirus.

Read the Code of Conduct & Safety Guidelines and Book your place …

Excursion title:

Joppa Shore

Date & time:

Sunday 18 October 2020, 10.30am

Finish time:

1pm

Leaders:

Robert Gatliff, Edinburgh Geological Society

Excursion aims and description:

This field excursion is an introductory trip, but open to all. The section at Joppa extends from the Upper Limestone Formation, through the Passage Formation and into the Lower Coal Measures (Carboniferous). The excellent exposures allow for study of the sedimentology in a fluvio-deltaic system (sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, ironstones, coals) with marine transgressions (limestones and shales). Evidence for palaeosols is widespread. The sequence dips to the east into the Midlothian syncline with several well-exposed faults with some evidence of syn-sedimentary earthquakes.

Meeting point:

Joppa Pumping Station at the eastern end of Portobello Beach (Grid Reference 317735)

Excursion route:

About 600 m along the shore and then return on footpath back to start to see overview of the section

Terrain, walking distance, height gain:

There is an easy ramp or steps down to the beach. The entire walk along the coast is over rocks, boulders and sand. The rocks and boulders can be slippery if wet. There will be some scrambling but nothing difficult. There are steps up (a few metres) to the road at Eastfield (324735). Easy walk along footpath and grass back to start.

Specific or Medium- / High-Risk Hazards:

Rough scrambling over rocks and boulders.

The section is tide-dependent: low tide is in the afternoon.

Control measures required to mitigate against any Hazards referred to above:

Walking boots preferred, although sensible outdoor footwear would be sufficient.

Hard hats or Hi-viz clothing needed:

No

May dogs be brought on the excursion?

Yes

Toilet information:

No

Geological map sheet:

BGS 1:50k Edinburgh 32E

OS map sheet:

Edinburgh Landranger 66

References:

Lothian and Borders GeoConservation Joppa Rocks leaflet https://www.edinburghgeolsoc.org/publications/geoconservation-leaflets/

Edinburgh & West Lothian – a landscape fashioned by geology (SNH and BGS)

Edinburgh Geology – an Excursion Guide (Edinburgh Geological Society) Edited by Mitchell, Walton and Grant. Published by Oliver and Boyd. This book id out of print. The Joppa section is not featured in the more recent Lothians Guide.



Kirkcaldy to Kinghorn

Booking essential. Please read and take note of the Code of Conduct & Safety Guidelines, in particular the procedures in place to minimise the transmission of Coronavirus.

Read the Code of Conduct & Safety Guidelines and Book your place …

Excursion title:

Kinghorn to Kirkcaldy

Date & time:

Saturday 10 October 2020, 10am

Finish time:

2pm

Leaders:

Ian Kearsley, EGS

Excursion aims and description:

To examine the Lower Limestone and Limestone Coal Formations between Kinghorn and Kirkcaldy

Meeting point:

Car Park at 2790 8980 at south end of Kirkcaldy (Seafield)

First locality:

Seafield breakwater

Excursion route:

a short walk from car park to Seafield Tower then on to Kinghorn following the route of the Kinghorn booklet in reverse.

Terrain, walking distance, height gain:

Coastal path and shore, About 6km in total.

Negligible height gain.

Specific or Medium- / High-Risk Hazards:

Rocks may be slippery on the shore.

Control measures required to mitigate against any Hazards referred to above:

Good walking shoes/boots and walking poles if used.

Hard hats or Hi-viz clothing needed:

Appropriate clothing for the weather. No hardhats.

May dogs be brought on the excursion?

No

Toilet information:

Toilets at Morrisons supermarket 2760 8990

Geological map sheet:

1:63,360 Solid Sheet 40 Kinross

OS map sheet:

367 Dunfermline/ Kirkcaldy

References:

Fife and Angus Geology: Fife geoHeritage Kinghorn leaflet.


Geology of Craiglockhart Hills

The excursion will examine the geology & geomorphology of the hill, making a circuit including the summits of Easter and Wester Craiglockhart.


Read the Code of Conduct and Safety Guidelines and book your place …

Excursion title: Geology of Craiglockhart Hills
Date & time: Wed 5th June 2019  7 pm Finish time: 9 pm
Leaders: Richard Smith, EGS
Excursion aims and description: To examine the geology & geomorphology of Craiglockhart Hills
Transport: Own transport or Lothian bus 10, 27 or 45
Meeting point: Top of stone steps, east side of Lockharton Crescent NT232 709
First locality: NT231 708,  south side of Craiglockhart pond

Parking on Lockharton Crescent

Excursion route: From the pond up Easter Craiglockhart Hill, then across Glenlockhart Road and up Wester Craiglockhart Hill and return to Lockharton Cres.
Terrain, walking distance, height gain: Varies from made paths, grassy paths to rough steeper grassy and uneven ground.

Walking up to 3 km, height gain of 150 m over the two hills.

Specific or Medium- / High-Risk Hazards: Watch out for steps; steeper rocky and grass slopes.

Take care crossing Glenlockart Road.

Control measures required to mitigate against any Hazards referred to above: Wear stout walking boots or shoes; use walking poles if needed. Protective, waterproof clothing. Avoid cliffs and hammering.
Hard hats or Hi-viz clothing needed: Hi viz vests recommended
May dogs be brought on the excursion? Not recommended
Toilet information: None close by
Geological map sheet: 1:50 k BGS Sheet 32E
OS map sheet: 1:50k OS sheet 66
References: Craiglockhart & Edinburgh’s Seven Hills leaflet, published by L&B RIGS Group

Pavement Palaeontology

A tour of central Edinburgh localities that includes several stops with fossiliferous rocks used in the built-environment from Jurassic and Devonian localities. A particular highlight is the large number of fossil fish in the Caithness Flagstones outside of the National Museum of Scotland on Chambers Street. The meeting point at Mr Wood’s Fossils will feature a short talk about the late Stan Wood and his contributions to vertebrate palaeontology.

Read the Code of Conduct and Safety Guidelines and book your place …

Excursion title:

Pavement Palaeontology

Date & time:

19/06/2019 1900

Finish time:

2100

Leaders:

Alistair J. McGowan, BioGeoD

Transport:

No transport needed

Meeting point:

Party will meet outside Mr Wood’s Fossils, 5

First locality:

Meet outside Mr Wood’s Fossils, 5 Cowgatehead, Edinburgh EH1 1JY

A number of public transport options lead to major interchanges on North Bridge.

Parking is possible at Waverley Railway Station in the car park accessed from New Street.

Excursion route:

www.plotaroute.com/route/762934

Terrain, walking distance, height gain:

Walk is entirely on paved surfaces.

Distance: 3.1 km. Total ascent 60 m.

Specific or Medium- / High-Risk Hazards:

No need for any high-risk road crossings.

Control measures required to mitigate against any Hazards referred to above:

N/A

Hard hats or Hi-viz clothing needed:

No

May dogs be brought on the excursion?

Yes

Toilet information:

Public toilets at top of Middle Meadow Walk.

Geological map sheet:

Scotland 32E Edinburgh

OS map sheet:

Landranger 66

References:

Building Stones of Edinburgh, 2nd edition (EGS).

Lothian Geology – an Excursion Guide (Edinburgh Geological Society)

Both guides are available on the BGS Earthwise site

http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Lothian_Geology:_an_excursion_guide

http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Building_stones_of_Edinburgh._2nd_edition.

We will pass a number of other localities that feature in Lothian and Borders GeoConservation leaflets.

https://www.edinburghgeolsoc.org/publications/geoconservation-leaflets/

Site explaining the work to renovate the Scotsman Steps. Printed copies are available from the Fruitmarket Art Gallery https://www.fruitmarket.co.uk/scotsman-steps/

Corstorphine Hill

Wednesday 24 April 2019, 7 pm

Corstorphine Hill

Leader: Ken Shaw

This geological and archaeological circuit of Corstorphine Hill will include disused quarries in Carboniferous sedimentary and igneous rocks, glacial landforms and processes, and Neolithic/Bronze Age cup-markings.

Read the Code of Conduct and Safety Guidelines and book your place …

Excursion title:

Corstorphine Hill

Date & time:

Wednesday 24 April 2019 at 19:00

Finish time:

21:00 approx.

Leaders:

Ken Shaw, EGS

Excursion aims and description:

To undertake a circuit of Corstorphine Hill and examine at least:

– Disused quarries in Carboniferous sedimentary and igneous rocks

– Glacial landforms and processes

– Neolithic / Bronze Age cup-markings

Transport:

Own transport

Lothian buses: No. 1 or 26 to top of Drum Brae Drive.

21 or 200 to Clermiston Road.

41 to Clermiston Drive.

12 or 31 to Corstorphine Road / Clermiston Road junction and walk over.

Meeting point:

Small car park off Clermiston Road North. NT2022 7466.

First locality:

As start

Excursion route:

Broadly clockwise round Corstorphine Hill. Route map on plotaroute.com.

Terrain, walking distance, height gain:

4 to 5 km of mostly made paths, some muddy. Some steep inclines and uneven steps. Some off-path excursions over rough ground.

Specific or Medium- / High-Risk Hazards:

None

Control measures required to mitigate against any Hazards referred to above:

None

Hard hats or Hi-viz clothing needed:

No – all of route is off-road.

May dogs be brought on the excursion?

Yes – hill is frequented by many dog walkers.

Toilet information:

None on route. May be able to use facilities in ‘Leonardo’ hotel.

Geological map sheet:

BGS 1:50,000 S032E Edinburgh; BGS 1:25,000 Edinburgh District Special Sheet.

OS map sheet:

OS 1:50,000 sheet 66; OS 1:25,000 sheet 350

References:

Corstorphine Hill. 2004. Lothian and Borders RIGS Group.

Henderson, J. 1872. On Corstorphine Hill, Near Edinburgh. Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Society, 2, 29-33.

MacKintosh, A. 2008. Corstorphine Hill: the Finest Views the Eye can Feast on. Friends of Corstorphine Hill.

Mitchell, G.H. and Mykura, W. 1962. The Geology of the Neighbourhood of Edinburgh, Third Edition. Memoirs of the Geological Survey, Scotland.

Young, Grant M. 2008. The Story Behind the Wall. Friends of Corstorphine Hill.


Geology of Roslin Glen – Midlothian Outdoor Festival

The power of running water is very evident along the River North Esk. The impressive gorge downstream of Rosslyn Castle was eroded by water from melting ice a few thousand years ago, but rivers also flowed here in Carboniferous times, forming the local sedimentary rocks.

Read the Code of Conduct and Safety Guidelines and book your place …

Excursion title: Geology of Roslin Glen – Midlothian Outdoor Festival
Date & time: Sunday 11 August, 2019 11am

** Please note the 11am walk is fully booked. We are running a repeat walk at 2pm. Booking essential.**

Finish time: 1.30 pm
Leaders: Angus Miller Lothian and Borders GeoConservation
Excursion aims and description: The power of running water is very evident along the River North Esk. The impressive gorge downstream of Rosslyn Castle was eroded by water from melting ice a few thousand years ago, but rivers also flowed here in Carboniferous times, forming the local sedimentary rocks.
Transport: public transport / cars
Meeting point: Outside Rosslyn Chapel Visitor Centre, Roslin EH25 9PU
First locality:
Excursion route: Down into the gorge of the River North Esk then following the river upstream, past Rosslyn Castle and to the gunpoder works in Roslin Glen.
Terrain, walking distance, height gain: 5 km on paths that can be muddy in places, with steps. Route map on plotaroute.com.
Specific or Medium- / High-Risk Hazards: None
Control measures required to mitigate against any Hazards referred to above: None
Hard hats or Hi-viz clothing needed: No
May dogs be brought on the excursion? Yes
Toilet information: At Rosslyn Chapel (entrance fee)
Geological map sheet: 32 E Edinburgh
OS map sheet: Landranger 66 Edinburgh
References: LBGC leaflet – Esk Valley, available from https://www.edinburghgeolsoc.org/publications/geoconservation-leaflets/

Around Castle Rock

Image: Edinburgh Castle Rock. Photo: Barbara Clarke

We shall examine some of the building stones of 18th to 20th century buildings on the walk from Lothian Road to The Mound via the Lawnmarket. We shall view the crag of the famous crag-and-tail of the Castle Rock and consider various interpretations of its origin. Contacts between the basaltic plug of the Castle Rock and early Carboniferous sedimentary strata into which it was emplaced will also be seen.

https://edinburghgeolsoc.org/downloads/lbgc-leaflet-around-castle-rock.pdf


Read the Code of Conduct and Safety Guidelines and book your place …

Excursion title: Around Castle Rock: a Geological Walk
Date & time: Wednesday 1st May 2019, 7.00pm Finish time: c. 9.00pm
Leaders: Andrew McMillan, Lothian & Borders Geoconservation
Excursion aims and description: We shall examine some of the building stones of 18th to 20th century buildings on the walk from Lothian Road to The Mound via the Lawnmarket. We shall view the crag of the famous crag-and-tail of the Castle Rock and consider various interpretations of its origin. Contacts between the basaltic plug of the Castle Rock and early Carboniferous sedimentary strata into which it was emplaced will also be seen.
Transport: n/a; many Lothian buses to Lothian Road (Nos. 1,10,11,16, 24, 34, 36, 47)
Meeting point: In front of the Usher Hall, 7.00pm
First locality: Usher Hall EH1 2EA, NT 248 733 (metered parking on nearby roads and NCP Castle Terrace Car Park)
Excursion route: Itinerary: Lothian Road , Cambridge Street, Castle Terrace, Johnston Terrace, Castle Esplanade (via steps of Castle Wynd North) if accessible, Castlehill, Lawnmarket, The Mound
Terrain, walking distance, height gain: Streets and Pavements; several flights of steps (Castle Wynd North) up to the Castle Esplanade from Johnston Terrace; mostly on the level or on gentle gradients, although steep descent on pavement to the National Gallery.
Specific or Medium- / High-Risk Hazards: Crossing busy streets is a specific risk
Control measures required to mitigate against any Hazards referred to above: Be diligent and look before crossing
Hard hats or Hi-viz clothing needed: Hi-viz vests desirable; leader will wear his
May dogs be brought on the excursion? No
Toilet information: None on the route of the excursion
Geological map sheet: 1:50k 32E
OS map sheet: Landranger 1:50k 66
References: Around Castle Rock (Lothian & Borders Geoconservation booklet) – also available online at https://edinburghgeolsoc.org/downloads/lbgc-leaflet-around-castle-rock.pdf

Building Stones of Edinburgh, 2nd edition (EGS)

Lothian Geology – an Excursion Guide (EGS) – City of Edinburgh – The Castles chapter by Charles Waterston

Building Stones of Edinburgh’s South Side – (Lothian & Borders Geoconservation leaflet)


Tantallon

Picture of Tantallon Castle - Edinburgh Geological Society


The impressive cliffs, islands and rocky headlands around North Berwick and Tantallon Castle are composed of lower Carboniferous volcanic rocks; but there are also subordinate sedimentary rocks that are fascinating in their own right. The jawbone of a tetrapod was found in the Ballagan Formation rocks at Gin Head north of Tantallon and nearby in Oxroad Bay similar rocks have yielded a diverse plant assemblage.

Read the Code of Conduct and Safety Guidelines and book your place …

Excursion title: Tantallon
Date & time: Saturday 1 September 2018 09:00 Finish time: 17:00
Leader: Tom Challands (University of Edinburgh), Dave Millward (BGS)
Excursion aims and description: To examine Tournaisian – Visean (Lower Carboniferous) volcaniclastics and sediments between Sea Cliffs beach and Gin Head
Transport: A coach will leave Waterloo Place at 9.00am to arrive at about 9:45am
Meeting point: Tantallon Castle car park (NT 591 848)
Coach route: A1 to Haddington, turn off at junction onto A199, continue past East Linton to turn off onto A198 towards Tyninghame and following the road round to the right through Whitekirk. Tantallon castle car park is on your right between Auldhame and Castleton.
Extra pick-up points: Milton Road
First locality: Canty Bay (NT 592 853) – base of the Garleton Hill volcanics. Wet weather option: Oxroad Bay (NT 598 848) – Contact between the Ballagan Formation and the Garleton Hill Volcanics. Oxroad Bay plant beds.
Excursion route: Walk from parking north along A198 to entrance to gate (NT 586 851) for road descending to Canty Bay. Walk east along coast for 0.7 km examining the base of the Garleton Hill Volcanics (mapped as ‘vent’) to Gin Head examine sediments and vertebrate-bearing conglomerates.

Continue east along coast to examine structures in volcaniclastics in Castleton Bay and sandstones and silts of the upper Ballagan Formation.

Move further east quickly passing over more volcaniclastics in Oxroad Bay where we will examine the Oxroad Bay plant Beds in the Garleton Hill Volcanics as well as laminated algal? deposits.

We will finally trace the base of the Garleton Hill Volcanics eastwards to The Gegan whilst investigating plant bearing sediments, dolomitised algal? Beds and massive slumping/deformation structures indicative of a dynamic and unstable volcaniclastic depositional environments.

Return to the car park will be made by following the road out from Seacliffs beach towards Auldhame.

Other exits back to parking can be made by ascending slope to field in Oxroad Bay (NT 598 848), Castleton Bay (NT 594 851), immediately west of Gin Head (NT 592 853) or in Canty Bay (NT 546 851).

Terrain, walking distance, height gain: 4 km, 50m height gain. Some VERY SLIPPY and VERY ROUGH terrain involving scrambling over wet tidal exposures. Alternative exits via grassy banks and paths may be muddy and slippy.
Specific or Medium- / High-Risk Hazards: Risk of tripping/slipping – Medium to High. Steep grass banks may need to be negotiated. Coastal exposures will be slippy and uneven.

Risk from falling Rocks – Low to Medium. Coastal cliff exposures always pose the possibility of falling rocks.

Control measures required to mitigate against any Hazards referred to above: Risk of tripping/slipping – Appropriate foot wear to be worn (walking boots, NOT welly boots) and walking poles if necessary.

Risk from falling Rocks – Unstable areas avoided and hard hats to be worn. We will employ a ‘buddy system’ where individuals look out for each other if straying too close to unstable rock faces.

Hard hats or Hi-viz clothing needed: Hard hats required. High visibility vests required.
May dogs be brought on the excursion? No
Toilet information: Toilet at Tantallon Castle. Next closest toilets are in North Berwick.
Geological map sheet: 33E and 41 OS map sheet: Explorer 351 Dunbar and North Berwick; Landranger 66 Edinburgh, Landranger 67 Duns, Dunbar and Eyemouth.
References: Bateman, R.M. and Rothwell, G.W., 1990. A reappraisal of the Dinantian floras at Oxroad Bay, East Lothian, Scotland. 1. Floristics and the development of whole-plant concepts. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of The Royal Society of Edinburgh, 81(2), pp.127-159.

Bateman, R.M., 1991. Palaeobiological and phylogenetic implications of anatomically-preserved Archaeocalamites from the Dinantian of Oxroad Bay and Loch Humphrey Burn, southern Scotland. Palaeontographica Abteilung B, pp.1-59.

Bateman, R.M. and Scott, A.C., 1990. A reappraisal of the Dinantian floras at Oxroad Bay, East Lothian, Scotland. 2. Volcanicity, palaeoenvironments and palaeoecology. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of The Royal Society of Edinburgh, 81(3), pp.161-194.

Smithson, T.R., Richards, K.R. and Clack, J.A., 2016. Lungfish diversity in Romer’s Gap: reaction to the end‐Devonian extinction. Palaeontology, 59(1), pp.29-44.

McAdam, A.D. and Tulloch, W., 1985. Geology of the Haddington district: memoir for 1: 50000 sheet 33W and part of (Vol. 41). HMSO.

Davies, A., Cameron, I.B., Elliot, R.W. and MacAdam, A.D., 1986. Geology of the Dunbar district: memoir for 1: 50 000 Sheet 33E and part of. HM Stationery Office.